A study reported in Pediatric Research and reported on Nature.com, evaluated the risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) following childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). Using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, 10,416 newly diagnosed TBI children (aged =12 years) between 2001 and 2002 and 41,664 children without TBI, who were frequency matched by sex, age, and year of the index medical service with each TBI child, as controls. Each individual was followed for 9 years to identify ADHD diagnosis.
Children with TBI had a higher ADHD risk (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19, 1.45) than did those without TBI. Furthermore, children with mild and severe TBI had higher AHRs for ADHD than did those without TBI (AHR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.53 and AHR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.22, 1.55). However, no significant association was observed between fractures and ADHD. The researchers concluded that TBI in childhood is associated with a greater likelihood of developing ADHD.